Zihan Wei

and 2 more

Persistent volcanic activity is thought to be linked to degassing, but volatile transport at depth cannot be observed directly. Instead, we rely on indirect constraints such as CO2-H2O concentrations in melt inclusions trapped at different depth, but this data is rarely straight-forward to interpret. In this study, we integrate a multiscale conduit-flow model for non-eruptive conditions and a volatile-concentration model to compute synthetic profiles of volatile concentrations for different flow conditions and CO2 fluxing. We find that actively segregating bubbles in the flow enhance the mixing of volatile-poor and volatile-rich magma in vertical conduit segments, even if the radius of these bubbles is several orders of magnitude smaller than the width of the conduit. This finding suggests that magma mixing is common in volcanic systems when magma viscosities are low enough to allow for bubble segregation as born out by our comparison with melt-inclusion data: Our simulations show that even a small degree of mixing leads to volatile concentration profiles that are much more comparable to observations than either open- or closed-system degassing trends for both Stromboli and Mount Erebus. Our results also show that two of the main processes affecting observed volatile concentrations, magma mixing and CO2 fluxing, leave distinct observational signatures, suggesting that tracking them jointly could help better constrain changes in conduit flow. We argue that disaggregating melt-inclusion data based on the eruptive behavior at the time could advance our understanding of how conduit flow changes with eruptive regimes.

Zihan Wei

and 7 more

Surface water nutrient pollution, the primary cause of eutrophication, remains a major environmental concern in Western Lake Erie despite intergovernmental efforts to regulate nutrient sources. The Maumee River Basin has been the largest nutrient contributor. The two primary nutrients sources are inorganic fertilizer and livestock manure applied to croplands, which are later carried to the streams via runoff and soil erosion. Prior studies on nutrient source attribution have focused on large watersheds or counties at long time scales. Source attribution at finer spatiotemporal scales, which enables more effective nutrient management, remains a substantial challenge. This study aims to address this challenge by developing a portable network model framework for phosphorus source attribution at the subwatershed (HUC-12) scale. Since phosphorus release is uncertain, we combine excess phosphorus derived from manure and fertilizer application and crop uptake data, flow dynamics simulated by the SWAT model, and in-stream water quality measurements into a probabilistic framework and apply Approximate Bayesian Computation to attribute phosphorus contributions from subwatersheds. Our results show significant variability in subwatershed-scale phosphorus release that is lost in coarse-scale attribution. Phosphorus contributions attributed to the subwatersheds are on average lower than the excess phosphorus estimated by the nutrient balance approach adopted by environmental agencies. Phosphorus release is higher during spring planting than the growing period, with manure contributing more than inorganic fertilizer. By enabling source attribution at high spatiotemporal resolution, our lightweight and portable model framework is suitable for broad applications in environmental regulation and enforcement for other regions and pollutants.

Cansu Culha

and 5 more

COVID-19 success stories from countries using contact tracing as an intervention tool for the pandemic have motivated US counties to pilot opt-in contact tracing applications. Contact tracing involves identifying individuals who came into physical contact with infected individuals. Recent studies show the effectiveness of contact tracing scales with the number of people using the applications. We hypothesize that the effectiveness of contact tracing also depends on the occupation of the user with a large-scale adoption in certain at risk occupations being particularly valuable for identifying emerging outbreaks. We build on an agent-based epidemiological simulator that resolves spatiotemporal dynamics to model San Francisco, CA, USA. Census, OpenStreetMap, SafeGraph, and Bureau of Labor Statistics data inform the agent dynamics and site characteristics in our simulator. We test different agent occupations that create the contact network, e.g. educators, office workers, restaurant workers, and grocery workers. We use Bayesian Optimization to determine transmission rates in San Francisco, which we validate with transmission rate studies that were recently conducted for COVID-19 in restaurants, homes and grocery stores. Our sensitivity analysis of different sights show that the practices that impact the transmission rate at schools have the greatest impact on the infection rate in San Francisco. The addition of occupation dynamics into our simulator increases the spreading rate of the virus, because each occupation has a different impact on the contact network of a city. We quantify the positive benefits of contact tracing adopted by at risk occupation workers on the community and distinguish the specific benefits on at risk occupation workers. We classify to which degree a certain occupation is at risk by quantifying the impact (a) the number of unique contacts and (b) the total number of contacts an individual has for any given work day on the virus spreading rate. We also attempt to constrain if, when, and for how long certain sites should be shut down once exposed to positive cases. Through our research, we are able to identify the occupations, like educators, that are at greatest risk. We use common geophysical data analysis techniques to bring a different set of insights into COVID-19 and policy research.